Sankey diagrams associated with fuel and electricity production and use in Canada

CESAR | Canadian Energy Systems Analysis Research

All Energy Flows (PJ, Cdn, 2013)



Natural gas





End-use energy

Crude Oil and petroleum products

Bioenergy and renewable electricity

Energy Industry Use & Losses


Primary energy

Imports and exports

Extraction & conversion technologies

Fuel & electricity for energy industry

Powered by CanESS

Data source: CanESS v7.
Sankey diagram built with D3’s Sankey plugin.


First off, these Sankey diagrams are great! I just want to know if N2O is included or excluded. N2O is a powerful greenhouse gas that is generated in many combustion processes. I see that methane has been included as one of the gases on the right-hand side of the diagram, but I don't see nitrous oxide which is often reported along with CO2 and CH4. Keep up the good work!

Thanks for your comments and questions. In these diagrams, we are only showing the flows of energy and carbon (including the energy and carbon in fugitive methane emissions) associated with the fuel and electricity systems of Canada and its provinces. N2O is not included here (although we have the numbers in our models) since we thought that would be confusing in an energy systems sankey. It is important to note that we are also not including the 'process' emissions of carbon that come from non-energy uses, such as the CO2 that is associated with cement manufacturing or iron ore processing (it comes from rock, not from fuel and electricity use). Also, we have not included the methane (or N2O) emissions that come from animal production systems (enteric fermentation or manure management) or those from landfill sites. Hope this helps.

The Sankey Diagrams are neat. From my perspective, I cannot understand the energy-related CO2e values. In the National Inventory Report (NIR) filed to the UNFCCC the energy-related GHGs in Canada's inventory are shown as 592 MT CO2e, not close to the 189.3 MT CO2e here. It's a huge difference. For PEI energy-related GHGs in 2013 were estimated as 1.294 MT CO2e in the NIR. Here, CO2e shows as only 0.364 MT in that year. Energy-related numbers appear to be fairly reasonable to me in the Sankey diagram, at least for PEI (I haven't gone through other places). Likely these energy values are reasonable across nation. I'm not sure how useful CESAR's GHG values are in the current Sankey Diagrams. I see GHG values (for PEI) are in the ballpark in the end-use sector section of CanESS data. Best regards, Matt